As a programmer, having knowledge of data structures is essential for efficient programming. Understanding the concepts of data structures helps programmers to create optimized, efficient, and reliable code. This article covers the ten common data structures that every programmer should know.

## Introduction to Data Structures

Data structures are the building blocks of computer programs. It is a way of organizing and storing data in a computer so that it can be accessed and used efficiently. There are two types of data structures: primitive and non-primitive. Primitive data structures are the basic data types such as integers, floats, and characters, while non-primitive data structures are more complex data structures that can hold multiple data types.

## Arrays

An array is a collection of similar data elements that are stored in contiguous memory locations. It is a simple and widely used data structure that allows easy access to its elements. Arrays have a fixed size, which means the number of elements in the array cannot be changed once it is defined.

## Linked Lists

A linked list is a data structure that consists of a sequence of nodes, where each node contains a data element and a reference to the next node in the sequence. It is a dynamic data structure, which means that the size of the list can be changed during runtime. Linked lists are commonly used to implement other data structures such as stacks, queues, and hash tables.

## Stacks

A stack is a linear data structure that follows the Last In First Out (LIFO) principle. It is a simple data structure that allows two operations: push and pop. The push operation adds an element to the top of the stack, while the pop operation removes the top element from the stack.

## Queues

A queue is a linear data structure that follows the First In First Out (FIFO) principle. It is a simple data structure that allows two operations: enqueue and dequeue. The enqueue operation adds an element to the end of the queue, while the dequeue operation removes the first element from the queue.

## Trees

A tree is a non-linear data structure that consists of nodes connected by edges. Each node in the tree has a parent node and zero or more child nodes. Trees are commonly used to represent hierarchical structures such as file systems and organization charts.

## Graphs

A graph is a non-linear data structure that consists of vertices connected by edges. Graphs are commonly used to represent complex relationships such as social networks and transportation systems.

## Hash Tables

A hash table is a data structure that maps keys to values. It uses a hash function to compute an index into an array of buckets or slots, from which the desired value can be found. Hash tables are commonly used for fast retrieval of data.

## Heaps

A heap is a binary tree data structure that satisfies the heap property. The heap property states that the value of each node is greater than or equal to the values of its children. Heaps are commonly used to implement priority queues.

## Trie

A trie, also known as a prefix tree, is a tree data structure that is used to store a collection of strings. Each node in the trie represents a prefix of one or more strings.

## Conclusion

Data structures are an essential part of computer programming. They allow programmers to efficiently store, organize, and manipulate data. This article covered the ten common data structures that every programmer should know: arrays, linked lists, stacks, queues, trees, graphs, hash tables, heaps, and tries.

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